What Is Periodontology?

It is a branch of dentistry which deals with the diseases of gingiva and tissues around the root (periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone and cement).

Healthy gums do not bleed upon brushing. Following tooth brushing, pink-red colored saliva in the sink indicates inflammation of the gums.

Healthy gums are usually pale pink in color, opaque, dimpled, having a hard consistency. They do not bleed and they end sharply without any swellings where they touch the tooth surface.

When these diseases are diagnosed at an early stage, they can be treated easily and successfully. Prevention or treatment of gum disease brings other benefits, such as the preservation of natural teeth, easier chewing and better digestion. Periodontal diseases start with inflammation of the gums (gingivitis).

So, gingivitis is the early stage of periodontal disease. In this period, the gums are bleeding, red and enlarged in volume. It may not cause much discomfort in the early period. If left untreated, the disease may progress to periodontitis and cause irreversible damage to the alveolar bone supporting the gums and teeth.

Periodontal diseases can be treated without the need for surgical interventions in the early diagnosis. After cleaning the tooth and root surface and checking the occlusion (control of the closure of the lower and upper jaw teeth with each other), caries and wisdom teeth are removed, preventing the accumulation of microorganisms, the gingiva adapts to the tooth again, the gingiva is replaced and the tissue pocket is eliminated.

Symptoms of Gum Disease:

  • Bleeding
  • Swelling in the gums
  • Redness of the gums
  • Gingival recession and consequent exposure of root surfaces
  • Sensitivity on exposed root surfaces
  • Blackness on the gingival margins or between the teeth due to tartar
  • Inflammation between the gums and teeth
  • Rocking, elongation, displacement of teeth
  • Bad odor and taste in the mouth

Treatment Methods Used in Gum Disease Are:

Surgical Periodontal Treatments: Surgical interventions are the interventions used in advanced periodontal diseases. In surgical periodontal treatments, tartar in the deep pockets surrounding the teeth is cleaned and these pockets are removed. A smooth and solid root surface is created, and the patient is provided with a gingival surface that can provide easier hygiene. Gingival recessions are treated by repairing with free gingival graft or connective tissue operations.

Flap Operation: It is a surgical operation performed to prevent the progression of periodontal diseases and to provide the necessary plaque control to the patient. After the area is anesthetized with local anesthesia, the gingiva is lifted so that the root surfaces and bone are exposed. Inflamed tissues are cleaned, root surfaces are smoothed and necessary bone corrections are made. The graft is used according to the extent of the damage to the bone and the process is completed.

Subgingival Curettage: After the treatment of initial gum disease, if the oral tissue does not heal, the gums are anesthetized using local anesthesia and the inflamed tissues and tartar under the gum are removed from the area.

Gingivectomy and Gingivoplasty: It is a surgical intervention performed to give physiological form to the gingiva, to treat fibrotic gingival growths and to correct gingival morphology by using local anesthetic in cases where thickening of the gingival margins is observed.

The treatment method to be used in the treatment of gum disease is determined by the dentist’s examination and the condition of the disease. With regular check-ups, these diseases can be prevented from recurring.

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